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Nationalism In India

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2

Here’s a summary of the Nationalism in India chapter you’d likely find in your 10th standard history textbook:

The Rise of Nationalism in India:

  • British Rule and its Impact: The British Raj, with its economic exploitation and political control, fostered a sense of discontent and a desire for self-rule among Indians.
  • Early Nationalist Movements:
    • The Sepoy Mutiny (1857) marked an early rebellion against British rule, though it wasn’t a unified nationalist movement.
    • The Indian National Congress (INC) founded in 1885, under leaders like Moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishna Gokhale, aimed for self-government within the British Empire through petitions and negotiations.
  • The Rise of Mass Nationalism:
    • The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in 1915 ushered in a new era of mass mobilization.
    • Gandhi’s philosophy of Satyagraha (non-violent resistance) and mass movements like the Non-Cooperation Movement, Khilafat Movement, and Salt March challenged British authority and inspired millions of Indians.
  • Unity in Diversity: Despite regional and religious differences, nationalism in India emphasized a shared Indian identity based on a common history and culture.
  • Role of Different Groups:
    • Women actively participated in nationalist movements, defying social norms.
    • Peasants and workers joined protests and strikes, showcasing the growing discontent across social classes.
  • The Road to Independence:
    • The INC, under Gandhi and other leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, continued its struggle.
    • The Quit India Movement (1942) demonstrated widespread national opposition to British rule.
    • India’s crucial role in World War II and growing international pressure on colonialism ultimately led to India’s independence in 1947.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2

Exercise

Write in brief

1. Explain

(a) Why is the growth of nationalism in the colonies linked to an anti-colonial movement ?

Ans : The growth of nationalism in colonies is intrinsically linked to anti-colonial movements for a few key reasons:

  • Oppression and Exploitation: Colonial rule often involved oppression of the native population and exploitation of resources. This bred resentment and a desire for self-determination. Nationalism, emphasizing a shared identity and history, provided a unifying force against the colonizer.
  • Loss of Freedom and Identity: Colonial policies often undermined local cultures and traditions. Nationalism became a way to reclaim a sense of identity and cultural pride that colonialism suppressed.
  • Shared Suffering: The hardships faced under colonial rule, like economic exploitation, political disenfranchisement, and social discrimination, fostered a sense of collective grievance. Nationalism channeled this shared experience into a movement for liberation.
  • Building a New Nation: Nationalist movements aimed to create independent nation-states based on a shared sense of belonging. This vision inherently clashed with the continued rule of a foreign power.

(b) How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India? [CBSE2014]

Ans : 

  • WWI’s economic strain (taxes, inflation) & forced recruitment angered Indians.
  •  Broken promises of self-rule after wartime support disillusioned them.
  •  Returning soldiers brought back ideas of self-determination. 
  • Gandhi’s leadership with Satyagraha resonated with the suffering population.
  •  Khilafat Movement linked Muslim grievances to Indian nationalism.
  •  Focus shifted from moderate reforms to complete Swaraj (self-rule). 
  • Mass movements like Non-Cooperation & Civil Disobedience challenged British rule. 
  • WWI became a turning point for a stronger Indian National Movement.

(c) Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?

Ans : The Rowlatt Act of 1919 sparked outrage in India for several reasons:

  • Undemocratic and Oppressive: The act bypassed the normal legal system, granting the British government immense power to detain political activists without trial for up to two years. This was seen as a clear attack on civil liberties and a return to more authoritarian rule.
  • Hurting National Sentiments: Indians, already yearning for self-rule, felt the Rowlatt Act was a blatant suppression of dissent and an attempt to stifle the growing nationalist movement. It undermined their aspirations for a just and democratic government.
  • Targeting Political Leaders: The act specifically targeted political leaders suspected of seditious activities. This instilled fear and anger among nationalists, who saw it as a tool to silence any opposition to British rule.
  • No Due Process: The lack of a proper trial and the potential for arbitrary detention fueled anxieties. It created a sense of injustice and a violation of basic rights, further alienating Indians from the British administration.
  • Passed Hurriedly: The act was rushed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite strong opposition from Indian members. This lack of transparency and disregard for Indian voices added to the sense of being treated as second-class citizens.

(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Ans : Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) in 11922 due to a confluence of factors:

  • Chauri Chaura Violence: A major turning point came with the violent incident at Chauri Chaura, where protestors clashed with police and set a police station on fire. This violence deeply disturbed Gandhiji, who believed in non-violent resistance (Satyagraha). He felt the movement had strayed from its core principles and that mass civil disobedience wasn’t yet ready in India.
  • Loss of Momentum: While the NCM initially witnessed widespread participation, it began to lose steam in some areas. Maintaining control and discipline over a large-scale movement proved challenging. Gandhiji might have felt a temporary halt was necessary to re-strategize.
  • Re-evaluating Strategy: The NCM faced criticism for not achieving immediate results. Gandhiji, a firm believer in introspection, might have viewed the suspension as an opportunity to re-evaluate the movement’s tactics and ensure its continued adherence to non-violence.

2. What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?

Ans : Satyagraha, a term coined by Mahatma Gandhi, is a philosophy and method of resistance based on non-violent civil disobedience. Here’s a breakdown of its key principles:

  • Truth ( सत्या, Satya): Central to Satyagraha is the pursuit of truth. This implies a willingness to fight for a just cause and complete transparency in methods used.
  • Non-Violence (अहिंसा, Ahimsa): Satyagraha strictly rejects violence as a means of achieving political or social change. It emphasizes peaceful protests, strikes, boycotts, and non-cooperation to bring about change.
  • Civil Disobedience (सविनय अवज्ञा, Savina Avajna): This involves the deliberate yet peaceful defiance of unjust laws or policies. Satyagrahis willingly accept the consequences of their actions, like arrest or imprisonment, to highlight the injustice.
  • Self-Suffering: The idea is that the suffering endured by the Satyagrahis will stir the conscience of the oppressors and ultimately lead to positive change.

Satyagraha aimed to achieve social and political change through moral persuasion and a willingness to suffer for one’s beliefs. It was a powerful tool used by Gandhi and his followers in the Indian independence movement, inspiring movements for civil rights and social justice around the world.

3. Write a newspaper report on :

(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

(b) The Simon Commission

Ans : 

(a) Amritsar Bloodbath: Hundreds Killed in British Crackdown

Amritsar, Punjab, April 15, 1919 – In a horrific event that has shaken the nation, British troops opened fire on a peaceful gathering of unarmed civilians in Jallianwala Bagh yesterday, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The crowd had assembled to celebrate Baisakhi, a major harvest festival, unaware of a recently imposed martial law. Brigadier-General Dyer, the acting commander, blocked all exits from the enclosed ground before ordering his troops to fire indiscriminately into the mass of people. Estimates suggest casualties in the hundreds, with many more injured. Panic ensued as people scrambled for cover, some jumping into the only available well, tragically drowning.

This unprovoked act of violence has sparked outrage across India. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi have condemned the massacre, calling it a “stain on humanity.” Public anger is rising, and calls for justice are growing louder. The British government has yet to comment on the incident, but this tragedy is sure to strain relations between the British Raj and the Indian people.

(b) “Go Back Simon!” – Indians Denounce All-White Commission

Bombay, Maharashtra, February 5, 1928 – The arrival of the Simon Commission, a body tasked with reviewing the Government of India Act, has been met with widespread protests across the country. The all-white commission, lacking a single Indian member, has been deemed an insult by Indian nationalists. Massive demonstrations have erupted in major cities, with protestors chanting slogans like “Go Back Simon!” and demanding a commission that includes Indian representation.

Leaders like Motilal Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah have declared a boycott of the commission. They argue that a body without Indian participation cannot understand the needs and aspirations of the Indian people. This controversy casts a shadow over the commission’s work and raises questions about the sincerity of the British government’s commitment to constitutional reforms in India.

These reports highlight two significant events in India’s struggle for independence: the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, a brutal display of British power, and the rejection of the Simon Commission, a symbol of India’s growing demand for self-rule.

Discuss

1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Choose any three, and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Ans : The Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) of 1921, led by Mahatma Gandhi, aimed to achieve Swaraj (self-rule) for India through non-violent resistance. It mobilized a diverse range of social groups:

  • Middle Class participation in Towns and Cities: Lawyers, teachers, and students actively participated in boycotts of British institutions and goods. They hoped to cripple the British administration and education system, promoting a self-reliant Indian society. Their struggle involved giving up their professions and facing potential financial hardship.
  • Workers in Plantations: Plantation workers, mostly in Assam and other parts of British India, joined the movement to protest harsh working conditions and low wages. They hoped to gain bargaining power and improve their lives. Their struggle involved defying harsh plantation rules and risking retaliation from their employers.
  • Peasants in the Countryside: Peasants burdened by high rents and taxes saw the NCM as an opportunity to fight for better land rights and economic justice. They hoped to reduce their dependence on exploitative landlords. Their struggle involved withholding rent payments, facing potential eviction, and social pressure from landlords.

Here’s a closer look at three specific groups and their motivations:

1. Lawyers: Many lawyers, inspired by Gandhi’s call for self-sacrifice, gave up their lucrative practices. They believed a boycott of British courts would delegitimize the colonial legal system and showcase India’s ability to govern itself. This decision meant financial hardship and uncertainty about their future careers.

2. Plantation Workers: The NCM resonated with plantation workers facing harsh working conditions and limited freedom. They participated in strikes and boycotts, demanding better wages and an end to exploitative practices. Their struggle involved defying authority, risking dismissal, and potentially facing violence from plantation overseers.

3. Peasants: For peasants burdened by high rents and taxes, the NCM offered a chance to challenge the existing exploitative land system. They participated in rent boycotts and protests, demanding land reforms and a fairer share of the harvest. Their struggle involved collective action, risking eviction from their land and social sanctions from landlords.

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism. 

Ans : The Salt March: A Powerful Symbol of Resistance Against Colonialism

The Salt March, led by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930, stands out as a pivotal moment in India’s fight for independence. It transcended a simple act of defiance against the Salt Act and became a potent symbol of resistance against colonialism for several reasons:

1. Targeting a Universal Necessity: Salt is a basic necessity, and the British monopoly on its production and taxation burdened every household. By breaking the law and making his own salt, Gandhi challenged a policy that impacted all Indians, rich or poor. This resonated deeply across social classes and fostered a sense of collective grievance.

2. Non-Violent Resistance: The Salt March exemplified Gandhi’s philosophy of Satyagraha (non-violent resistance). His peaceful defiance, coupled with the willingness to endure arrest and imprisonment, exposed the oppressive nature of British rule to the world and garnered international sympathy for the Indian cause.

3. Simple Yet Powerful Act: The act of making salt was symbolic. It represented India’s right to utilize its own resources and self-sufficiency under colonial rule. The simplicity of the act made it easily understood by the masses and allowed for mass participation, further strengthening the movement.

4. Media Attention and Public Support: The Salt March captured international media attention, showcasing the plight of the Indian people under British rule. This global spotlight put pressure on the British government and bolstered domestic support for the independence movement.

5. Inspiring Mass Action: The Salt March sparked nationwide civil disobedience. People across India defied the Salt Act by producing and consuming their own salt. This mass mobilization demonstrated the growing strength of the nationalist movement and its ability to disrupt the colonial administration.

6. A Defining Moment for Gandhi: The Salt March solidified Gandhi’s position as the leader of the Indian independence struggle. His leadership and unwavering commitment to non-violence inspired millions of Indians to join the movement for Swaraj (self-rule).

3.  Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Ans : Joining the Civil Disobedience Movement was a revelation. Gone were the days of simply tending to the home. Now, I stand with other women, our voices a united front against British rule. We picket shops, spin khadi, and chant slogans – a vibrant force for change. Fear exists, but it’s overshadowed by courage and a newfound sense of purpose. This fight for freedom isn’t just for India, it’s for a future where women like me can stand tall and free.

4. Why did the political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?

Ans : The issue of separate electorates in colonial India sparked sharp disagreements among political leaders due to conflicting ideologies and visions for India’s future:

Proponents (mainly Dr. B.R. Ambedkar):

  • Political Empowerment for Dalits: Separate electorates were seen as a way to ensure political representation for Dalits (formerly untouchables), who faced severe social discrimination and marginalization. They argued that without separate electorates, Dalit voices would be drowned out by the dominant Hindu castes.

Opponents (mainly Mahatma Gandhi):

  • Perpetuating Social Divisions: Gandhi believed separate electorates would solidify existing caste divisions and hinder the process of social integration. He envisioned a united India where Dalits enjoyed equal rights within a common electorate.

Additional Considerations:

  • Fears of Fragmentation: Some leaders worried that separate electorates for Dalits might lead to demands for similar provisions from other minority groups, potentially fracturing the nationalist movement.
  • Focus on Upliftment vs. Representation: While Ambedkar prioritized immediate political power for Dalits, Gandhi emphasized social reforms and improving their social standing as the path to true empowerment.

The Poona Pact (1932):

  • This compromise agreement brokered by Gandhi saw Ambedkar concede on separate electorates, accepting reserved seats for Dalits within the general electorate.
  • This reflected a preference for national unity while acknowledging the need for increased Dalit political participation.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2

FAQs

What is covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2?

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 covers the rise of nationalism in India, key events, movements, and figures that contributed to the freedom struggle, and the impact of colonial rule.

How does the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 explain the Non-Cooperation Movement?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 provides a detailed explanation of the Non-Cooperation Movement, its objectives, methods, key leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, and its impact on Indian society.

What was the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement according to Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India?

According to NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2, Mahatma Gandhi played a pivotal role in the Indian National Movement through his leadership in movements like Non-Cooperation, Civil Disobedience, and Quit India, advocating non-violence and mass mobilization.

How does Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India describe the Civil Disobedience Movement?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 describes the Civil Disobedience Movement as a mass protest against British laws, led by Mahatma Gandhi, involving non-violent resistance, refusal to pay taxes, and the famous Salt March.

What were the causes of the Quit India Movement as outlined in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 outlines the causes of the Quit India Movement, including the failure of the Cripps Mission, growing impatience with British rule, and the desire for immediate independence, leading to a nationwide call for British withdrawal.

How does Chapter 2 of Class 10 History Nationalism in India explain the impact of British policies on Indian agriculture?

Chapter 2 of Class 10 History Nationalism in India explains that British policies led to the commercialization of agriculture, exploitation of farmers, increased land revenue demands, and the transformation of traditional agrarian systems, causing widespread distress and famines.

What significant events during the Indian freedom struggle are highlighted in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India?

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India highlights significant events like the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the Khilafat Movement, the formation of the Indian National Congress, and various regional uprisings that contributed to the freedom struggle.

How does the chapter discuss the role of women in the Nationalist Movement?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 discusses the active participation of women in the Nationalist Movement, highlighting figures like Sarojini Naidu, Kamala Nehru, and Aruna Asaf Ali, and their contributions to various protests and movements.

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