Wednesday, May 29, 2024

From Hunting- Gathering To Growing Food

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2

The chapter From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food in your 6th-grade Social Science textbook explores the transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a settled life based on agriculture. Here are the key takeaways:

1. Hunter-Gatherer Societies:

  • Early humans, for millions of years, lived as hunter-gatherers.
  • They hunted wild animals, fished, and gathered fruits, nuts, roots, and seeds for food.
  • They were nomadic, constantly moving from place to place to find new resources.

2. Reasons for the Shift:

  • Over time, populations grew, and relying solely on hunting and gathering became difficult.
  • People started observing the growth patterns of plants and experimented with planting seeds.
  • This led to the development of agriculture, allowing people to cultivate crops and domesticate animals.

3. Impact of Agriculture:

  • The shift to agriculture led to a settled life in villages and towns.
  • People could now store food surpluses, leading to a more stable food supply.
  • This stability allowed for the development of new skills and occupations beyond just obtaining food.
  • It also fostered the growth of trade and social complexity.

4. Key Points to Remember:

  • The shift from hunting-gathering to agriculture was a gradual process that took place over thousands of years.
  • This transition had a profound impact on human societies, paving the way for the development of civilizations.
  • The chapter also highlights the concept of chronology, using terms like BC (Before Christ) and CE (Common Era) to understand the timeline of these events.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food

Let’s recall

1. Complete the sentences:

(a) Hunter-gatherers chose to live in caves and rock shelters because____.

(b) Grasslands developed around_____years ago.

Ans : (a) they provided shelter from the elements like rain, wind, and extreme temperatures.

(b) 10,000 

2. Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time?

Ans : People who grow crops, also known as farmers, need to stay in the same place for a long time for several crucial reasons:

1. Plant Growth and Care: Crops require time to grow and mature. Different crops have varying growing seasons, ranging from a few months to a year or even longer. 

2. Maintaining Fields and Infrastructure: Establishing and maintaining fields is an ongoing process. This involves activities like preparing the soil, planting seeds, and building irrigation systems. 

3. Monitoring and Harvesting: Crops need to be monitored regularly to assess their growth and identify any potential problems. 

4. Knowledge and Experience: Successful farming requires accumulated knowledge and experience specific to the local environment and the crops being grown. 

5. Community and Social Factors: Farming is often a community-based activity. Farmers might collaborate with others, share resources, and learn from each other’s experiences. 

3. Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important later?

Ans : Archaeologists believe that the people of Mehrgarh transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a herding lifestyle based on evidence found during excavations:

1. Analysis of animal bones:

  • The earliest levels of the Mehrgarh site revealed a higher presence of bones from wild animals like deer and pigs.
  • This suggests that hunting was a primary source of food for the early inhabitants.
  • In later levels, there was a significant increase in the number of bones from domesticated animals like sheep, goats, and cattle.
  • This shift in bone composition indicates a gradual emphasis on herding as a source of food.

2. Lack of evidence for early animal domestication:

  • Archaeologists haven’t found any clear evidence of animal pens or specialized tools for herding in the earliest levels of Mehrgarh.
  • This absence suggests that herding wasn’t a widespread practice during the initial stages of the settlement.

3. Presence of wild animal remains throughout:

  • Even in the later levels with a higher presence of domesticated animal bones, some wild animal remains are still present.
  • This suggests that hunting continued to some extent even after herding became more prevalent, potentially as a supplementary food source.

Let’s discuss

4. Why did the hunter-gatherers travel from place to place? In what ways are these similar to/different from the reasons for which we travel today?

Ans : Hunter-gatherers traveled from place to place for several reasons, vastly different from the reasons most of us travel today:

Reasons for hunter-gatherer travel:

  • Following food sources:
    • They relied on hunting wild animals and gathering edible plants, which weren’t always readily available in one location.
    • As resources in their immediate surroundings became scarce, they needed to move to areas with abundant resources to ensure survival.
  • Seasonal changes:
    • Many plants and animals have seasonal availability.
    • Hunter-gatherers would migrate to follow the availability of food throughout the year, ensuring they had a continuous supply.
  • Water availability:
    • Not all regions have year-round access to water, especially in arid or seasonal environments.
    • Hunter-gatherers would move to areas with reliable water sources to meet their basic needs.

Differences from modern travel:

  • Necessity vs. choice:
    • Hunter-gatherers had to travel due to their reliance on immediate access to resources for survival.
    • Modern travel is usually a choice motivated by leisure, exploration, work, or visiting family and friends.
  • Distance and duration:
    • Hunter-gatherers likely traveled shorter distances and more frequently, following seasonal changes and resource availability within their known territory.
    • Modern travel often involves covering greater distances and staying in one place for a longer duration, like vacations or work assignments.
  • Planning and preparation:
    • Due to the unpredictable nature of resource availability, hunter-gatherer travel might have involved less planning compared to modern travel.
    • Today, we often plan and prepare extensively for trips, booking accommodations, transportation, and activities.
  • Technology and infrastructure:
    • Hunter-gatherers relied on their knowledge of the environment and physical capabilities for travel.
    • We have the advantage of advanced technology like vehicles, maps, and communication devices, and developed infrastructure like roads and airports, making travel easier and faster today.

5. List three ways in which hunter-gatherers used fire (see page 14). Would you use fire for any of these purposes today?

Ans : Based on the information provided, here are three ways hunter-gatherers used fire, along with whether or not we use fire for these purposes today:

1. Cooking: Hunter-gatherers used fire to cook their food, making it safer to eat by killing harmful bacteria and parasites. Additionally, cooking meat made it softer and easier to digest.

Today: We definitely still use fire for cooking! In fact, various cooking methods like grilling, roasting, baking, and even boiling rely on fire or heat generated from it.

2. Keeping warm: In colder climates, hunter-gatherers used fire to provide warmth during the night or in chilly weather. They might have gathered around campfires or used fire to heat their shelters.

Today: While fire is not our primary source of heat anymore, we do still use it in some ways to stay warm. For example, some people still use fireplaces or wood-burning stoves for heating their homes, particularly in rural areas or during power outages. Campfires are also used for warmth and ambiance during outdoor activities like camping or bonfires.

3. Scare away animals: Fire could be used to deter wild animals that might pose a threat to hunter-gatherers or their settlements. The light, crackling sounds, and smoke from fire could act as a deterrent.

Today: While not a common practice, fire is still sometimes used in specific situations to scare away wild animals. For instance, farmers might use flares or torches to scare off animals that could damage their crops, and campgrounds might have designated fire pits where controlled fires can be used to deter potentially dangerous animals like bears.

6. List three ways in which the lives of farmers and herders would have been different from that of hunter- gatherers.

Ans : Here are three key differences between the lives of farmers and herders compared to hunter-gatherers:

1. Settlement and mobility:

  • Hunter-gatherers: Led a nomadic lifestyle, constantly moving from place to place to find food and resources. They had no permanent settlements and lived in temporary shelters like caves or huts.
  • Farmers and herders: Adopted a more settled lifestyle, living in permanent villages or communities. This allowed them to focus on cultivating crops or raising animals, which required staying in one location for extended periods.

2. Food source and subsistence:

  • Hunter-gatherers: Relied on hunting wild animals and gathering edible plants for their food. This method of obtaining food was unpredictable and depended heavily on environmental factors and available resources.
  • Farmers: Practiced agriculture, cultivating crops like wheat, rice, or vegetables. This provided a more reliable and stable food source, reducing their dependence on the immediate availability of wild resources.
  • Herders: Domesticated animals like sheep, goats, or cattle, relying on them for meat, milk, and other products. This method also offered a more predictable food source compared to hunting, but required knowledge and skills for animal care and management.

3. Social organization and division of labor:

  • Hunter-gatherers: Often lived in small, egalitarian societies with a simple social structure. Everyone in the group likely participated in hunting, gathering, and childcare.
  • Farmers and herders: As their societies grew, more complex social structures emerged. This could involve specialized roles like farmers, herders, craftspeople, and traders. This division of labor allowed for increased efficiency and production.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2

What are NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2?

NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food provide comprehensive explanations and answers to the questions posed in the textbook, guiding students through the historical transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture.

How can NCERT solutions help in understanding the transition from hunting gathering to growing food in Class 6 History Chapter 2?

NCERT solutions offer detailed explanations and insights into the historical process of transitioning from hunting-gathering to agriculture, helping students grasp key concepts with clarity and depth.

Where can I find NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2?

NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food can be found online or in study materials provided by educational platforms or institutes specializing in academic resources.

When should I use NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 2?

NCERT solutions are ideal for reinforcing learning, clarifying doubts, and preparing for exams. They can be used alongside regular study or as a revision tool before assessments.

What topics are covered in the transition from hunting-gathering to growing food in Class 6 History Chapter 2?

Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food covers the significant historical transition from hunting gathering to agriculture, exploring the methods, challenges, and impacts of this pivotal shift in human civilization.

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