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In The Earliest Cities

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NCERT Solutions for class 6 History Chapter 3

In the Earliest Cities,” takes you on a captivating journey back in time, delving into the world of the Indus Valley Civilization. It specifically focuses on two remarkable ancient urban centers: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, flourishing along the banks of the Indus River around 4700 years ago.

The Rise of Urban Life:

The chapter In The Earliest Cities opens by highlighting a significant shift in human history – the transition from the nomadic lifestyle of hunter-gatherers towards settled communities. The emergence of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro marked the beginning of urban life in this region.

Hallmarks of Well-Planned Cities:

These ancient cities weren’t just random clusters of dwellings. The chapter describes them as meticulously planned with several impressive features:

  • Wide streets: These facilitated easy movement of people and goods within the city.
  • Well-organized houses: Houses were constructed using baked bricks, reflecting advanced building techniques and a focus on durability.
  • Advanced drainage systems: These sophisticated systems ensured proper sanitation and hygiene within the city, showcasing the ingenuity of the inhabitants.

These features, along with potential defensive walls surrounding some settlements, indicate a well-organized society with a focus on urban planning and infrastructure development.

A Diverse and Specialized Society:

The chapter goes beyond the physical structure of these cities, delving into the lives of the people who resided there. It reveals that the inhabitants engaged in various occupations, including:

  • Farming: The fertile land surrounding the Indus River supported agriculture, providing the foundation for the city’s food supply.
  • Trading: The chapter mentions evidence of trade with other regions, suggesting a dynamic and interconnected society.
  • Crafting: Skilled artisans likely produced various goods, including pottery, jewelry, and tools, catering to the needs of the population and potentially contributing to trade.

This diversity in occupations highlights the presence of a specialized workforce, contributing to the overall development and prosperity of the civilization.

The Importance of the Indus River:

The chapter emphasizes the crucial role of the Indus River in the flourishing of these cities. The river provided:

  • Water: A vital resource for drinking, cooking, sanitation, and irrigation of crops.
  • Transportation: The river likely served as a major transportation route, facilitating trade and communication with other settlements.

Without the Indus River, the development and sustenance of these large urban centers might not have been possible.

A Glimpse into Daily Life:

The chapter mentions the discovery of various artifacts from these cities, including:

  • Toys: These offer insights into the lives and leisure activities of children.
  • Jewelry: These intricate pieces reveal the artistic skills and craftsmanship of the people.
  • Tools: These provide clues about the occupations and technologies used by the inhabitants.

NCERT Solutions for class 6 History Chapter 3

Let’s recall

1. How do archaeologists know that clot Harappan civilisation?

Ans : Archaeologists don’t actually call it the “clot Harappan civilization.” The term most commonly used is Indus Valley Civilization, and archaeologists have gathered extensive evidence to understand and study this ancient society through various methods:

1. Excavation and Unearthing of Sites:

  • Archaeologists have extensively excavated several sites associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, including Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. These excavations have unearthed various artifacts, structures, and remnants of daily life.
  • Studying these remains provides crucial information about the material culture, architecture, urban planning, and technologies used by the Harappans.

2. Analysis of Artifacts:

  • The vast collection of artifacts recovered from these sites, including:
    • Pottery: Often decorated with intricate designs and motifs, offering insights into artistic expression, potential cultural symbols, and even trade patterns.
    • Seals: Used for administrative purposes and potentially religious rituals, depicting animals, geometric patterns, and Indus script inscriptions.
    • Tools and implements: Made from various materials like stone, metal, and bone, providing clues about the occupations, technologies, and daily activities of the Harappans.
  • By analyzing these artifacts, archaeologists can learn about the economy, social structure, technology, and artistic expressions of the Indus Valley Civilization.

3. Study of Indus Script:

  • The presence of a unique writing system, known as the Indus script, is another crucial piece of evidence.
  • While the script hasn’t been fully deciphered yet, ongoing research efforts aim to understand its meaning, potentially revealing more about the language, beliefs, and social organization of the Harappans.

4. Environmental Studies:

  • Studying environmental data like pollen analysis, plant remains, and geological features helps archaeologists understand the climate, vegetation patterns, and subsistence practices of the Harappans.
  • This information can shed light on their relationship with the environment, potential reasons for settlement choices, and even factors that might have contributed to any societal changes or decline.

2.Match the columns

Column IColumn II
Precious StonesKarnataka

Ans : 

Column IColumn II
Precious StonesKarnataka

3. Why were metals, writing, the wheel, and the plough important for the Harappans?

Ans : The presence of metals, writing, the wheel, and the plough played a crucial role in the development and advancements of the Harappan civilization:


  • Improved toolmaking: Metals like copper and bronze were harder and more durable than stone, allowing the Harappans to create stronger and more efficient tools for various activities like agriculture, construction, and craftwork.
  • Increased efficiency: These advanced tools led to increased efficiency in tasks like cutting, digging, and shaping materials, contributing to overall progress.
  • Ornaments and symbols of status: Metals like gold and silver were also used for making ornaments and jewelry, potentially signifying wealth and social status within the Harappan society.


  • Communication and recordkeeping: The Indus Valley Civilization developed a unique writing system, the Indus script. While not fully deciphered, it suggests the Harappans had a developed system of communication and possibly used writing for recordkeeping, trade, and administration.
  • Organization and administration: Writing might have facilitated more organized and efficient administration of the civilization, especially as their settlements grew larger and more complex.

The wheel:

  • Transportation and trade: The invention of the wheel revolutionized transportation, allowing the Harappans to develop carts for transporting goods and people more efficiently. This facilitated trade over longer distances and movement of materials for construction and daily life.
  • Pottery making: The wheel was also used in pottery making, enabling the creation of standardized and symmetrical pots with greater ease and speed.

The plough:

  • Improved agriculture: The plough, a tool used for tilling the land, enabled the Harappans to prepare the soil more effectively for planting crops. This led to increased agricultural productivity and supported the growing population of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Let’s discuss

4. Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson. Which do you think children would have enjoyed playing with the most?

Ans : Common Terracotta Toys in the Indus Valley Civilization:

  • Animal figurines: These were the most abundant type of toy, including representations of bulls, cows, rams, monkeys, dogs, elephants, and even rhinos. Some figurines depict animals with wheels attached, suggesting they were used as toy carts.
  • Whistles: These were often in the shape of birds or animals and likely served as both toys and noisemakers for children.
  • Rattle carts: Small carts with clay balls inside that rattled when pulled, similar to modern rattles.
  • Dolls: Simple human figurines, representing both male and female figures.

5.  Make a list of what the Harappans ate, and put a tick mark against the things you eat today.

Ans : 

Food ItemLikely Eaten by HarappansYou Eat Today (✓)
Rice (later in the period)
Millets (like Jowar and Bajra)
Lentils (like Masoor and Moong Dal)
Sesame seeds
Fruits (dates, melons, grapes)
Vegetables (like eggplant, cucumber)
Meat (cattle, sheep, goat, pig, wild boar)
Fish and shellfish

6. Do you think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders you read about in Chapter 2? Give reasons for your answer.

Ans : Yes, the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was likely different from those you read about in Chapter 2 in several key ways:

1. Settlement and mobility:

  • Harappan farmers and herders: Lived in permanent villages or settlements near the cities they supplied, facilitating regular trade and interaction. This contrasts with the nomadic lifestyle of some groups described in Chapter 2, who constantly moved to find resources.
  • Chapter 2 farmers and herders: Might have been more mobile, following seasonal changes and relying on hunting and gathering alongside cultivation or herding.

2. Food production and storage:

  • Harappan farmers and herders: Likely practiced more intensive and advanced agriculture, potentially using irrigation techniques and tools like the plough. This suggests higher and more reliable food production. They might have also had storage facilities to manage surpluses and trade with the cities.
  • Chapter 2 farmers and herders: Might have used simpler farming techniques and relied on natural rainfall for irrigation. Their food production might have been less consistent due to dependence on environmental factors. Storage facilities might have been less developed or absent.

3. Interaction and trade:

  • Harappan farmers and herders: Lived close to larger, well-organized cities. This facilitated regular interaction and trade with urban populations, potentially leading to exchange of goods, services, and ideas.
  • Chapter 2 farmers and herders: Likely lived in smaller communities and potentially had less frequent or organized trade compared to Harappan societies.

4. Social organization and division of labor:

  • Harappan society: Might have shown a more complex social structure with specialized roles like farmers, herders, craftspeople, and traders. This suggests a division of labor and potential for increased social hierarchy.
  • Chapter 2 communities: Might have been more egalitarian with everyone contributing to various tasks like hunting, gathering, and food production. Social structures might have been simpler with less emphasis on specialized roles.

NCERT Solutions for class 6 History Chapter 3


What are NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3?

NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3 In The Earliest Cities provide detailed explanations and answers to the questions posed in the textbook, offering insights into life “In the Earliest Cities” during ancient times.

How can NCERT solutions help in understanding life in the earliest cities in Class 6 History Chapter 3?

NCERT solutions offer comprehensive explanations and analyses of life in the earliest cities, helping students understand the social, cultural, and economic aspects of ancient urban civilizations.

Where can I find NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3?

NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3 In The Earliest Cities can be found online or in study materials provided by educational platforms or institutes specializing in academic resources.

When should I use NCERT solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3?

NCERT solutions are beneficial for reinforcing learning, clarifying doubts, and preparing for exams. They can be used alongside regular study or as a revision tool before assessments.

What topics are covered in life in the earliest cities in Class 6 History Chapter 3?

Class 6 History Chapter 3 In The Earliest Cities explores various aspects of life in the earliest cities, including social structures, economic activities, cultural practices, and technological advancements, providing valuable insights into ancient urban civilizations In The Earliest Cities.

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