Wednesday, May 29, 2024

Eighteenth – Century Political Formation

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NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8

This chapter delves into the rise of independent kingdoms and regional powers in 18th century India, marking a shift from the centralized Mughal Empire. Here are the key takeaways:

  • Decline of the Mughals: The weakening Mughal Empire created a power vacuum, leading to the emergence of new regional players.
  • Rise of Marathas: Under Shivaji, the Marathas carved out a powerful kingdom in the Deccan, challenging Mughal rule. Their guerilla warfare tactics and efficient administration contributed to their success.
  • Sikh Confederacy: The Sikhs, originally a religious community, united under capable leaders to form a powerful confederacy (Dal Khalsa) in the north. They built a strong military and established their own administrative system.
  • Other Regional Kingdoms: Several other regions witnessed the rise of independent kingdoms, like the Jats in Rajasthan, the Awadh Nawabs, and the Mysore kingdom in South India.
  • Factors for Regional Rise:
    • Weak Mughal control
    • Rise of strong regional leaders
    • Development of efficient military and administrative systems
    • Local cultural identities
  • Impact of Regionalization:
    • Increased diversity and competition
    • Development of regional art, literature, and architecture
    • Rise of new social and economic structures

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8

Exercises

Let’s Recall

1. State whether true or false:

(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.

(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.

(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.

(d)  Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.

Ans : 

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

Let’s Discuss (NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8)

2. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?

Ans : In the 18th century, Sikhs organized themselves in two ways:

  • Military: Smaller groups called Jathas merged into larger units called Misls. These, along with the unified Dal Khalsa army, formed their military force.
  • Governance: Decisions were made through Gurmattas (resolutions passed at gatherings) and a revenue system called Rakhi provided income.

This mix of military units, a unified army, collective decision-making, and a revenue system helped the Sikhs rise to power.

3. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?

Ans : The Marathas had several reasons for wanting to expand beyond the Deccan in the 18th century:

  • Weakening Mughal Empire: The decline of the Mughals created a power vacuum in India. The Marathas saw an opportunity to expand their influence and territory.
  • Economic Gains: By controlling trade routes and conquering new territories, the Marathas could increase their revenue and resources. This wealth could then be used to maintain their military and administration.
  • Security: Expanding their borders could provide a buffer zone against potential threats from other rising powers in India.
  • Political Prestige: Military victories and territorial expansion enhanced the Marathas’ political prestige and established them as a dominant force in 18th century India.
  • Maratha System: Their military strategy relied on mobility and guerilla warfare. This required constant movement and expansion to keep their cavalry supplied and maintain momentum.

4.  Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?

Ans : 

18th Century:

  • Limited Financial Alternatives: In the past, there were fewer options for financing ventures or managing wealth. Merchants and bankers were the primary source of loans and investment capital.
  • Direct Control of Resources: Merchants often controlled entire trade routes and had a monopoly on specific goods. Bankers wielded immense power due to limited access to credit.
  • Political Influence: Wealthy merchants and bankers could influence political decisions and policies that benefited their trade or financial interests.

Today’s Scenario:

  • Diversified Financial System: Modern economies have a complex financial system with various institutions like stock markets, investment banks, and insurance companies. This reduces reliance on individual merchants or bankers.
  • Regulations and Oversight: Government regulations and oversight bodies monitor financial institutions, limiting their ability to exert absolute control over resources or markets.
  • Shifting Influence: While still powerful, the influence of merchants and bankers has shifted towards a more collaborative approach with governments and other financial institutions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8

FAQ’s

What topics are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8, “Eighteenth-Century Political Formation”?

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8 delve into the political landscape of eighteenth-century India, covering aspects such as the decline of the Mughal Empire, the emergence of regional powers, and the impact of European colonialism on Indian politics.

How does NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8 explain the decline of the Mughal Empire?

NCERT Solutions detail the factors contributing to the decline of the Mughal Empire, including weak successors, regional rebellions, and invasions by foreign powers like the Persians and Afghans.

What role did regional powers play in eighteenth-century India as discussed in NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8?

NCERT Solutions elucidate how regional powers emerged and expanded during the eighteenth century, often challenging the authority of the declining Mughal Empire and establishing their own independent states.

How did European colonialism impact Indian politics during the eighteenth century, as highlighted in NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8?

NCERT Solutions examine the increasing influence of European colonial powers like the British, French, and Portuguese on Indian politics, leading to diplomatic alliances, trade agreements, and eventual colonial rule.

What socio-economic changes occurred in India during the eighteenth century, according to NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 8?

NCERT Solutions discuss the socio-economic transformations, including the growth of regional trade networks, the rise of banking and commerce, and changes in land revenue systems, reflecting the evolving political landscape of the time.

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