Monday, June 17, 2024

Pastoralists in the Modern World

- Advertisement -spot_imgspot_img
- Advertisement -spot_img

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5

Here’s a summary of the chapter “Pastoralists in the Modern World” from your 9th standard Social Science:

Pastoralist Lifestyle:

  • The chapter focuses on nomadic communities who rely on herding livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, camels) for their livelihood.
  • They move from place to place in search of pastures and water for their animals.

Challenges in the Modern World:

  • The chapter discusses how the modern world presents challenges for pastoralists:
    • Loss of Grazing Lands: Government policies, agricultural expansion, and development projects can restrict access to traditional grazing grounds.
    • Climate Change: Changes in rainfall patterns and droughts can affect the availability of water and pastures.
    • Border Issues: Modern borders and restrictions on movement can disrupt traditional migration routes for pastoralists.

Impact on Pastoralists:

  • These challenges force pastoralists to change their lifestyle:
    • Sedentarization: Some communities are forced to settle down in one place, leading to difficulties adapting to a new lifestyle and potential social problems.
    • Reduced Herds: Limited grazing land might necessitate reducing herd sizes, impacting their income and traditional way of life.

Resistance and Adaptation:

  • The chapter also highlights how pastoralists resist these changes and try to adapt:
    • Negotiations: They may negotiate with governments for access to grazing lands and resources.
    • Alternative Income: Some might take on other jobs to supplement their income from herding.
    • Education: Education allows younger generations to find opportunities outside of traditional pastoralism.

Global Examples:

  • The chapter discusses pastoral communities from different regions:
    • India: The Gujjars and Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are examples facing challenges due to development projects.
    • Africa: The Maasai of East Africa face issues with restricted movement due to national parks and borders.

Importance of Pastoralism:

  • The chapter emphasizes the importance of pastoralism:
    • Environmental Management: Their traditional practices can help maintain grasslands and prevent desertification.
    • Cultural Heritage: Their nomadic way of life represents a unique cultural heritage.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5

Exercise : 

1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Ans : Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another for two main reasons:

1. Resource Availability:

  • Grazing Lands: Their primary livelihood revolves around herding animals like sheep, goats, and cattle. These animals require fresh pastures to graze on. As they consume the grass in one area, it depletes and takes time to regrow. By moving to new locations, they ensure a continuous supply of food for their livestock.
  • Water Scarcity: Many nomadic communities live in arid or semi-arid regions where water sources are scarce and unreliable. Moving allows them to follow seasonal water availability and ensure their animals have enough to drink.

Environmental Advantages of Nomadic Movement:

  • Prevents Overgrazing: By constantly moving, they avoid overgrazing any one area. This allows pastures time to recover and regenerate, promoting healthy grasslands.
  • Soil Health: Their movement prevents the soil from getting compacted, which can hinder water infiltration and plant growth.
  • Biodiversity: Their grazing patterns can help maintain a diversity of plant and animal life in the areas they traverse.

2.Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:

Ans : 

1. Waste Land Rules:

  • Reason: The British saw “wastelands” as unproductive and sought to convert them into revenue-generating agricultural land.
  • Impact: These rules restricted access to grazing grounds traditionally used by pastoral communities. They faced a shortage of pastures for their livestock, impacting their livelihood.

2. Forest Acts:

  • Reason: The British wanted to control commercially valuable timber resources and generate revenue from forestry.
  • Impact: These acts restricted movement and grazing within designated forests. Pastoralists who relied on forest resources for grazing and fodder faced hardships.

3. Grazing Tax:

  • Reason: The colonial government imposed taxes on livestock grazing on certain lands.
  • Impact: This created an additional financial burden on pastoralists. Many struggled to pay the tax, and some were forced to sell animals or reduce herd sizes, affecting their income and traditional practices.

4. Criminal Tribes Act:

  • Reason: The British viewed nomadic communities with suspicion, associating them with crime.
  • Impact: This act labeled certain pastoral groups as “criminal tribes,” restricting their movement and subjecting them to surveillance. It not only restricted their traditional way of life but also led to social stigma.

3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Ans : The Maasai community lost their vast grazing lands in East Africa due to a combination of factors during the colonial era and beyond:

  • Colonial Land Division: In the late 19th century, European powers like Britain and Germany carved up Maasailand, dividing their traditional territory with an international boundary between Kenya and Tanzania. This restricted their movement and access to historical grazing grounds.
  • Focus on Cash Crops: The colonial governments prioritized establishing plantations for commercially valuable crops like coffee and tea. This often involved clearing Maasai lands, further reducing their grazing space.
  • Establishment of National Parks and Reserves: Large areas of land were designated as national parks and wildlife reserves, restricting Maasai access to these areas which might have contained vital grazing grounds or migratory routes.
  • Government Policies: Colonial and post-colonial governments sometimes implemented policies encouraging sedentarization (settling in one place) or restricted traditional grazing practices. This conflicted with the Maasai nomadic lifestyle.
  • Population Growth: Human population growth in the region put additional pressure on land resources, further squeezing the availability of grazing land for the Maasai.

4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.

Ans : 

  1. Loss of Grazing Lands and Restricted Movement:
  • India: Colonial policies like the “Waste Land Rules” and Forest Acts restricted access to traditionally used grazing grounds for Indian pastoral communities. Development projects like dams and agriculture further reduced available land.
  • East Africa (Maasai): Colonial land division separated traditional Maasai grazing territories by national borders. Establishment of national parks and reserves also restricted their movement and access to vital grazing areas.

Both communities faced a decline in available land for their livestock due to government policies and development projects. This restricted their movement patterns and disrupted their traditional way of life.

  1. Impact of Commercialization and Sedentarization Policies:
  • India: The colonial government and later developments encouraged cash crop plantations and agriculture, leading to conversion of grazing lands. Some policies aimed to settle nomadic communities, which clashed with their traditional practices.
  • East Africa (Maasai): Colonial focus on cash crops like coffee and tea led to clearing of Maasai lands. Similar to India, some government policies encouraged sedentarization, disrupting their nomadic lifestyle.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5

FAQ’s

Who are pastoralists and what regions are discussed in Class 9 History Chapter 5?

Pastoralists are people who raise livestock and move with their herds in search of pasture and water. The chapter discusses pastoralists from different regions including Africa, India, and Central Asia.

How did the introduction of colonial forest laws affect pastoralists according to Class 9 History Chapter 5?

Colonial forest laws restricted pastoralists’ access to forests, which were traditionally used for grazing. This led to a reduction in available pasture, forced them to pay grazing fees, and disrupted their migratory routes.

What were the main challenges faced by pastoralists in the modern world as described in Class 9 History Chapter 5?

Challenges included loss of grazing lands due to agricultural expansion, environmental changes, state policies that limited their movement, and socio-economic pressures that threatened their traditional lifestyles.

What role did pastoralists play in the economies of their regions as discussed in Class 9 History Chapter 5?

Pastoralists played a crucial role in the economies by providing livestock products such as milk, meat, wool, and hides. They also facilitated trade and cultural exchanges through their migratory patterns.

How did pastoral communities adapt to the changes imposed by colonial and modern state policies according to Class 9 History Chapter 5?

Pastoral communities adapted by altering their migratory routes, diversifying their income sources, adopting new livestock practices, and sometimes engaging in settled agriculture or wage labor.

- Advertisement -spot_imgspot_img
Latest news
- Advertisement -spot_img
Related news
- Advertisement -spot_imgspot_img